University of Hawai'i, Manoa
The University of Hawai'i at Manoa (UHM) is a Research I institution located in Honolulu, a large metropolitan area. Enrollment is approximately 20,000 students, of whom about 11,000 are undergraduates. About 3,500 undergraduates live in campus residence halls. There is no Greek system; however, there are a few off-campus fraternities and sororities. UHM participates at top national levels in several sports.
The undergraduate student body is very ethnically diverse; about 48% are Asian (18% Japanese, 9% Filipino, 7% Chinese); 14% are Hawaiian or Pacific Islander; 23% are Caucasian, and close to 19% are mixed Asian, mixed Pacific Islander, or other mixed ethnic background.
The University Health Service is under the UHM Office of Student Affairs. Under the Health Service, the Health Promotion Program includes the Alcohol and Other Drug Education Program (ADEP). ADEP focuses on three primary areas: prevention/ reduction in high-risk alcohol and other drug use and harmful consequences; individual screening and brief intervention for alcohol/ other drug use, and; tobacco prevention and on-line cessation programming.
From January 2007 to the present, Anheuser Busch has provided funding for a social norms prevention campaign targeting the undergraduate student body. This campaign is an expansion of the Manoa Alcohol Project (MAP), a social norms project targeting freshmen in the residence halls. That project was funded from 2005 to 2007 by the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Safe and Drug Free Schools.
From July 2005 through December 2008, a screening and intervention project was funded by the U.S. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. This project targeted high risk drinkers, providing individual assessment and brief intervention, and will continue under UHM funding.
Original MAP Focus and Results
The original Manoa Alcohol Project focused to a large extent on clarifying social norms of entering freshmen, through posters, games at fairs, and contests at alcohol-free events. The main finding at the project's completion was that the initial cohort (freshmen entering the residence halls in fall, 2005 measured again as sophomores in spring, 2007) experienced a 44.8% decrease in heavy episodic drinking, from 29% in fall 2005 to 16% in spring, 2007. In addition, among those who drank alcohol, harmful consequences associated with drinking were reduced in almost all areas measured.
Current MAP Activities
The Anheuser Busch-supported Manoa Alcohol Project began in May, 2007 when funding was received and a Public Health graduate student coordinator was hired. Project plans were developed over summer and Fall, 2007; however, some activities were conducted, including: continuing the MAP Coordinating Committee, a campus-wide task force dealing with all aspects of alcohol and other drugs; negotiating with a local cab company to offer prepaid cab cards printed with the UHM logo and social norms harm reduction messages; training residence hall staff on social norms, harm reduction, and brief intervention; providing alcohol poisoning preventive education; and publishing a social norms oriented brochure, "Is UH Manoa a Party School?", distributed widely at new student orientations and health fairs.
Focus groups conducted in the fall of 2008 and 2009 and feedback from the original MAP led the project to consider a broad approach to social norms marketing, responding to the following dilemmas:
- Although posters may be effective for some, many students do not pay attention to the poster or the message, and/ or do not understand how it relates to them. Response: Use a range of media to deliver social norms messages.
- Students are tired of hearing and seeing messages about alcohol; there are health concerns that are more important and immediate to most UHM undergraduates. Response: Alcohol programming will be combined with more general wellness messages and/ or specific education on other topics such as nutrition or safer sex.
- The previous MAP evaluation and other research indicate that messages regarding harm reduction techniques and injunctive norms may be more effective than quantity-frequency messages. Response: The primary focus will be on the most effective social norms messages.
- The social norms approach arose from the Theory of Planned Behavior, which includes components other than subjective norms. One of these components is self-efficacy, an individual's feeling of control over his or her behavior and its outcomes in a given context. Response: The campaign will include messages designed to increase students' sense of self-efficacy.
- Curriculum infusion is a strategy that has shown much promise in other institutions. Response: By working with academic entities, the project hopes to demonstrate positive impact from collaboration between academics and student services.
- The influence of parents' attitudes, especially on freshmen, is well documented. Response: The project will provide social norms and other information to parents, to help them understand and discuss realistic norms and healthy behavioral choices with their students.
In spring 2008 and beyond, the Manoa Alcohol Project began work on several activities that respond to the components noted above. These include:
Bathroom Reader, "On the Go"
- Content: 50% other health topics, 50% alcohol
- Available at all residence halls, three well-frequented buildings, and on the website
- 200 copies of each bathroom reader on each issue, with 6 quarterly issues from May 2008 to May 2009, for a total of 1200 copies
Safe Summer Kit
- 634 kits distributed during the last week of classes in May, 2008
- Promoted harm reduction; multiple behavior techniques
- Alcohol, nutrition, tobacco, safe sex, drinking & driving, and physical activity topics covered
- Tools to encourage healthy behavior, such as fruit bars, condoms, etc. were included in a water bottle with the MAP logo.
- The water bottle has been used in other wellness campaigns during the fall (see Wellness Kits, below)
- Similar to Safe Summer Kits; 138 kits distributed in August 2008, 600 distributed in October 2008 (for Alcohol Awareness week), 125 distributed January 2009, 112 distributed April-May 2009, for a total of 975.
- Special distributions were made for athletes, freshmen, and students in residence halls.
Parent/ Family Education
- "Alcohol & the College Student: a Guide for Families" booklet mailed to parents of all new freshmen
- 3,000 booklets mailed or handed out in August 2008 and August 2009, for a total of 6,000
- Provided at resident hall parent events and freshmen parent orientations
MAP Student Planners
- Created through partnership with Graphic Arts Program students; students learned alcohol facts and local norms/ harm reduction techniques. They then created a new MAP logo and the planner.
- These were in high demand; included numerous alcohol social norms, harm reduction, and other creative educational messages throughout the planner, along with informatio such as a map of the campus, scheduling and study aids, etc. An unsolicited student newspaper article was written about MAP and the planners.
- Eighteen hundred 2008-2009 student calendar/ planners distributed through campus center, freshmen dorms, and health promotion office in August-September 2008.
- Because of the high demand, a 2009-2010 MAP Student planner was created, with 3,000 copies printed. The new planner uses Native Hawaiian themes of balance and health.The planner is scheduled to be distributed through New Student Orientation in August 2009, the school newspaper office, the residence halls, campus center, and through the university health clinic.
- Launched MAP facebook in September, 2008
- Over 800 UH Manoa friends
- Mostly freshmen & sophomores
- Used as a way to interact with students and to bring familiarity with the MAP campaign
- Updating the look and feel of the website
- Sections: social norms, harm reduction techniques, alcohol campus policies, myths, campaign materials, information about brief intervention, parents & family, faculty section with curriculum infusion information
- Calendar of alcohol-free & related evens (alternative activities)
- Planned launch in August 2009
MAP YOUR LIFE Campaign
- Conducted October 2008-May 2009
- 3-poster series, taking off from the student planner theme
- 400 of each poster distributed through dorms and campus, for a total of 1,200 posters
- Posters used as screensavers at the University Health Clinic's Health Q&A computers and exam room computers
Truth vs. Myth Campaign
- Conducted from September-December 2009
- Series of 5 posters with a "grunge" design to represent rebellion
- Presented common myths surrounding alcohol use to help rectify social norms.
- Because posters were heavy on text, they were placed in elevators, bathrooms, and other places where students spend longer amounts of time.
- Conducted October 2008 and January 2009
- Based on the BACCHUS college student safety pledge, the MAP pledge focused empowering students to opt for healthy low-risk choices
- On back of pledge, social norms and tips for low-risk drinking were provided.
- 827 student pledges collected
Table Top Presentations
- Information on MAP and social norms through direct dialogue with students at special events or fairs.
- Condom Fair (February 2008 and 2009)
- Great American Smokeout (November 2008 and 2009)
- Healthapalooza (May 2008)
- National Alcohol Awareness Week (October 2008 and 2009)
- National Alcohol Screening Day (in partnership with BASICS program)(2008 and 2009).
- Partnered with the Lokahi Program, a service learning peer education program, to promote correct social norms and low-risk drinking behavior.
- Approximately 595 students received class presentations in the fall of 2008 and psring of 2009.
- Audience response system (clickers) incorporated into class presentations.
Safe Ride/ CabBux
- Launched as a partnership with local taxi company in 2007.
- Cab "gift card" aimed at students and their parents to prevent drinking and driving.
- University of Hawaii logo on the card and "party safely" tips on cardholder.
- Card distributed through student ID office and can add money online.
- Posters advertising the card and safe partying tips on campus and direct mailing to parents to encourage parents to put money in theirson/daughter's CabBux.
Celebratory Drinking Banners
- MAP banners that encourage low-risk drinking behavior during celebratory drinking times.
- Bottom of the banner detaches to match upcoming holidays.
- Displayed at Campus Center and Residence Halls before major celebratory drinking occasions.
Upcoming for Fall, 2009
- Create, Replenish, Pursue Campaign: Posters, buttons, eco-bags, and planners promoting healthy, balanced behavior and correction of social norms.
- YouTube/ Facebook MAP social norms viral video.
- Partnership with Campus Center to create specific materials for student events to promote accurate social norms.
- Promotion of new web site through oline channels.
- Safe Summer Kit: to get the kit, students entered their e-mail. They were contacted to determine if the kit ws used, if they enjoyed receiving it, and their perceived norms; evaluations were very positive.
- Parent booklet: Each booklet contained an evaluation form that cold be mailed back to the Health Promotion office. Those that returned the forms were pleased and appreciative.
- MAP Planners (graphic design students): The graphic arts students were very enthusiastic about this project; their instructor asked that MAP work with another group in spring, 2009. At the time of distribution, there was a great deal of positive feedback and publicity. A forrmal evaluation is being conducted. (Students provided e-mail addresses in return for receiving the planner).
- MAP Planners (general student): Pre and post survey conducted with students that received the planners showed increased knowledge of low-risk behavior, more accurate norms, and self-reported reduction in drinking.
- A series of intercept interviews in late Fall 2008 covering all MAP materials and posters showed that students exposed to the MAP campaign were more likely to report more accurate social norms.
- The NCHA-web was conducted in spring, 2007 and spring, 2008. This will be considered baseline, because no specific social norms marketing was done campus-wide until after the spring 2008 administration.
- The NCHA-web survey will be administered in even years, with the next survey in spring 2010.
- The project developed the Alcohol & Health random sample undergraduate student survey and administered it in spring 2009. It covered both processes and outcomes. The results constituted the firs major evaluation of the project. The results indicated reduction of harm in overall target group and reduced misperception of norms in those who wre exposed to the MAP campaign. The survey will be conducted again in 2011.